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In common law jurisdictions, statutory rape is nonforcible sexual activity in which one of the individuals is below the age of consent the age required to legally consent to the behavior. The terms child sexual abuse or child molestation may also be used, but statutory rape generally refers to sex between an adult and a minor past the age of puberty , and may therefore be distinguished from child sexual abuse. In statutory rape, overt force or threat is usually not present. Statutory rape laws presume coercion , because a minor or mentally handicapped adult is legally incapable of giving consent to the act. In many jurisdictions, the age of consent is interpreted to mean mental or functional age. Consensual teenage sex is common in the United States. In fact, it is estimated that there are more than 7 million incidents of statutory rape every year.

If we have no information about the populations then we assume a "flat prior", i. Suppose you had wagered that Mr Smith had two boys, and received fair odds. We think of your wager as investment that will increase in value as good news arrives.

What evidence would make you happier about your investment? Learning that at least one child out of two is a boy, or learning that at least one child out of one is a boy? The latter is a priori less likely, and therefore better news.

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That is why the two answers cannot be the same. Now for the numbers.

Kirti Singh states that dowry is widely considered to be both a cause and a consequence of son preference, and this may lead to girls being unwanted, sex selective abortion, female infanticide or abuse of female children. Predicting Your Baby's Sex. How well can rings, dreams, or countenance foretell boy or girl? Some people swear by old wives' tales as foolproof methods for pregnancy prognostication. Freud further proposed that the Oedipus complex, which originally refers to the sexual desire of a son for his mother, is a desire for the parent in both males and females, and that boys and girls experience the complex differently: boys in a form of castration anxiety, girls in a form of penis envy.

If we bet on one child and win, the value of your investment has doubled. On the other hand if we learn that at least one of two children is a boy, our investment increases as if we had wagered on this question. So the answer is 1 in 3. Following the popularization of the paradox by Gardner it has been presented and discussed in various forms.

However, someone may argue that "before Mr. Smith identifies the boy as his son, we know only that he is either the father of two boys, BB, or of two girls, GG, or of one of each in either birth order, i.

Rape by gender classifies types of rape by the sex and/or gender of both the rapist and the victim. This scope includes both rape and sexual assault more generally. Most research indicates that rape affects women disproportionately, with the majority of people convicted being men; however, since the broadening of the definition of rape in by the FBI, more attention is being given to male. A sequel to Sex and the Single Mom, entitled More Sex and the Single Mom, was released in with O'Grady reprising her role as Jess. The film focuses on Jess's life as a mother of a teenage daughter and three-year-old son, as well as on her increasingly complicated love and sex by: Alexina Louie, Alex Pauk. Sex differences in statutory rape Female on male statutory rape. Until the late s, sex involving an adult female and an underage male was often ignored by the law, due to the belief that it is often sexual initiation for the younger male.

Discovering that he has at least one boy rules out the event GG. The natural assumption is that Mr. Smith selected the child companion at random.

They imagine a culture in which boys are invariably chosen over girls as walking companions. InMarilyn vos Savant responded to a reader who asked her to answer a variant of the Boy or Girl paradox that included beagles. The and questions, respectively were phrased:. In response to reader response that questioned her analysis vos Savant conducted a survey of readers with exactly two children, at least one of which is a boy. Of 17, responses, The authors do not discuss the possible ambiguity in the question and conclude that her answer is correct from a mathematical perspective, given the assumptions that the likelihood of a child being a boy or girl is equal, and that the sex of the second child is independent of the first.

Carlton and Stansfield go on to discuss the common assumptions in the Boy or Girl paradox. They demonstrate that in reality male children are actually more likely than female children, and that the sex of the second child is not independent of the sex of the first.

The authors conclude that, although the assumptions of the question run counter to observations, the paradox still has pedagogical value, since it "illustrates one of the more intriguing applications of conditional probability. Suppose we were told not only that Mr. Smith has two children, and one of them is a boy, but also that the boy was born on a Tuesday: does this change the previous analyses? Again, the answer depends on how this information was presented - what kind of selection process produced this knowledge.

Following the tradition of the problem, suppose that in the population of two-child families, the sex of the two children is independent of one another, equally likely boy or girl, and that the birth date of each child is independent of the other child. From Bayes' Theorem that the probability of two boys, given that one boy was born on a Tuesday is given by:. The first term is already known by the previous remark, the last term is 0 there are no boys.

Therefore, the full equation is:. In other words, as more and more details about the boy child are given for instance: born on January 1the chance that the other child is a girl approaches one half. To understand why this is, imagine Marilyn vos Savant's poll of readers had asked which day of the week boys in the family were born. If Marilyn then divided the whole data set into seven groups - one for each day of the week a son was born - six out of seven families with two boys would be counted in two groups the group for the day of the week of birth boy 1, and the group of the day of the week of birth for boy 2doubling, in every group, the probability of a boy-boy combination.

However, is it really plausible that the family with at least one boy born on a Tuesday was produced by choosing just one of such families at random? It is much more easy to imagine the following scenario. Assume that which of the two children answers the door is determined by chance.

Then the procedure was 1 pick a two-child family at random from all two-child families 2 pick one of the two children at random, 3 see if it is a boy and ask on what day he was born. This is a very different procedure from 1 picking a two-child family at random from all families with two children, at least one a boy, born on a Tuesday. This variant of the boy and girl problem is discussed on many internet blogs and is the subject of a paper by Ruma Falk.

Historically, much of Korea's values and traditions were based on Confucianism that dictated the patriarchal system, [93] motivating the heavy preference for sons.

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Additionally, even though the abortion ban existed, the combination of son preference and availability of sex-selective technology led to an increasing number of sex-selective abortions and boys born.

Therefore, scholars have been continuously analyzing and generating connections among sex-selection, abortion policies, gender discrimination, and other cultural factors. Other countries with large populations but high sex ratios include Pakistan and Vietnam.

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United Nations Population Fund, in its report, [95] claims the birth sex ratio of Vietnam at with its densely populated Red River Delta region at ; for Pakistan, the UN estimates the birth sex ratio to be The urban regions of Pakistan, particularly its densely populated region of Punjab, report a sex ratio above less than females per males.

Recently, a rise in the sex ratio at birth has been noted in some parts of Nepalmost notably in the Kathmandu Valleybut also in districts such as Kaski. Abnormal sex ratios at birth, possibly explained by growing incidence of sex-selective abortion, have also been noted in some other countries outside South and East Asia. The Caucasus has been named a "male-dominated region", and as families have become smaller in recent years, the pressures to have sons has increased.

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After the collapse, the birth sex ratios sharply climbed and have remained high for the last 20 years. According to an article in The Economist the sex ratio in Armenia is seen to be a function of birth order.

The article claimed that among first born children, there are boys for every girls.

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According to latest CIA data, the sex ratio in the region is for Armenia, for Azerbaijan, and for Georgia. An imbalanced birth sex ratio has been present in the 21st century in the Western Balkansin countries such as AlbaniaMacedoniaKosovo and Montenegro.

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Scholars claim this suggests that sex-selective abortions are common in southeast Europe. Like in other countries, sex-selective abortion is difficult to track in the United States because of lack of data.

Carlton and Stansfield go on to discuss the common assumptions in the Boy or Girl paradox. They demonstrate that in reality male children are actually more likely than female children, and that the sex of the second child is not independent of the sex of the first.

While some parents in United States do not practice sex-selective abortion, there is certainly a trend toward male preference.

However, it is notable that minority groups that immigrate into the United States bring their cultural views and mindsets into the country with them.

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A study carried out at a Massachusetts infertility clinic shows that the majority of couples using these techniques, such as Preimplantation genetic diagnosis came from a Chinese or Asian background.

This is thought to branch from the social importance of giving birth to male children in China and other Asian countries. A study of the United States Census suggests possible male bias in families of Chinese, Korean and Indian immigrants, which was getting increasingly stronger in families where first one or two children were female.

In those families where the first two children were girls, the birth sex ratio of the third child was 1. Because of this movement toward sex preference and selection, many bans on sex-selective abortion have been proposed at the state and federal level. In an sex-selective abortions were banned in Oklahoma and Arizonarespectively. A study by John Bongaarts based on surveys in 61 major countries calculates the sex ratios that would result if parents had the number of sons and daughters they want.

In 35 countries, claims Bongaarts, the desired birth sex ratio in respective countries would be more than boys for every girls if parents in these countries had a child matching their preferred gender higher than India's, which The Economist claims is Estimates of implied missing girls, considering the "normal" birth sex ratio to be the - range, vary considerably between researchers and underlying assumptions for expected post-birth mortality rates for men and women.

For example, a study estimated that over 90 million females were "missing" from the expected population in AfghanistanBangladeshChinaIndiaPakistanSouth Korea and Taiwan alone, and suggested that sex-selective abortion plays a role in this deficit. Although there is significant evidence of the prevalence of sex-selective abortions in many nations especially India and Chinathere is also evidence to suggest that some of the variation in global sex ratios is due to disparate access to resources.

As MacPherson notes, there can be significant differences in gender violence and access to food, healthcare, immunizations between male and female children. This leads to high infant and childhood mortality among girls, which causes changes in sex ratio. Disparate, gendered access to resources appears to be strongly linked to socioeconomic status. Specifically, poorer families are sometimes forced to ration food, with daughters typically receiving less priority than sons.

In other words, the poorest families are typically less bound by cultural expectations and norms, and women tend to have more freedom to become family breadwinners out of necessity. Increased sex ratios can be caused by disparities in cts of life other than vital resources. According to Sendifferences in wages and job advancement also have a dramatic effect on sex ratios.

This is why high sex ratios are sometimes seen in nations with little sex-selective abortion. Lopez and Ruzikah found that, when given the same resources, women tend to outlive men at all stages of life after infancy.

However, globally, resources are not always allocated equitably. Thus, some scholars argue that disparities in access to resources such as healthcare, education, and nutrition play at least a small role in the high sex ratios seen in some parts of the world.

Moreover, in India, lack of equal access to healthcare has led to increased disease and higher rates of female mortality in every age group until the late thirties Sen This is particularly noteworthy because, in regions of the world where women receive equal resources, women tend to outlive men Sen Women outlive men in all but 2 countries. Economic disadvantage alone may not always lead to increased sex ratio, claimed Sen in For example, in sub-Saharan Africa, one of the most economically disadvantaged regions of the world, there is an excess of women.

So, if economic disadvantage is uncorrelated with sex ratio in Africa, some other factor s may be at play. Various theories have been proposed as possible reasons for sex-selective abortion.

Culture rather than economic conditions is favored by some researchers because such deviations in sex ratios do not exist in sub-Saharan AfricaLatin Americaand the Caribbean. Some demographers question whether sex-selective abortion or infanticide claims are accurate, because underreporting of female births may also explain high sex ratios. The reason for intensifying sex-selection abortion in China and India can be seen through history and cultural background.

Generally, before the information eramale babies were preferred because they provided manual labor and continuation of the family lineage. Labor is still important in developing nations as China and India, but when it comes to family lineage, it is of great importance. The selective abortion of female fetuses is most common in areas where cultural norms value male children over female children for a variety of social and economic reasons.

Sex selective female abortion is a continuation, in a different form, of a practice of female infanticide or withholding of postnatal health care for girls in certain households. Such practices are prevalent among some Muslim and Hindu communities in South Asia.

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When females interact with men, or are believed to do so, the " family honor " is tarnished. Historically, in many South Asian populations, women were allocated a very low status, evidenced through practices such as satian ancient funeral custom where a widow immolated herself on her husband's pyre or committed suicide in another fashion shortly after her husband's death.

The modern practice of sex-selective abortion is therefore a continuation of other historical practices. There were males per females.

This is comparable to the contemporary sex ratio in the area, now divided between India and Pakistan. Chinese culture is deeply patriarchal. Pre-modern Chinese society was predominantly patriarchal and patrilineal from at least the 11th century BC onwards. Although the legal and social standing of women have greatly improved in the 20th century, son preference remains still strong, and the situation was aggravated by the one child policy.

Interpretations of Confucianism have been argued to contribute to the low status of women. The gender roles prescribed in the Three Obediences and Four Virtues became a cornerstone of the family, and thus, societal stability. Starting from the Han period, Confucians began to teach that a virtuous woman was supposed to follow the males in her family: the father before her marriage, the husband after she marries, and her sons in widowhood.

In the later dynasties, more emphasis was placed on the virtue of chastity. The Song dynasty Confucian Cheng Yi stated that: "To starve to death is a small matter, but to lose one's chastity is a great matter. In modern East Asia, a large part of the pattern of preferences leading to this practice can be condensed simply as a desire to have a male heir.

Monica Das Gupta observes, from birth data for China, there was no evidence of selective abortion of female fetuses among firstborn children.

However, there was a strong preference for a boy if the first born was a girl. Dowry is the property that parents of a female transfer at her marriage. Dowry is an ancient practice, that has been common in many cultures around the world, and which is today prevalent especially in South Asia. The custom of dowry is most common in cultures that are strongly patrilineal and that expect women to reside with or near their husband's family patrilocality. Kirti Singh states that dowry is widely considered to be both a cause and a consequence of son preference, and this may lead to girls being unwanted, sex selective abortion, female infanticide or abuse of female children.

The dowry system in India is a major part of Indian culture and refers to the durable goods, cash, and real or movable property that the bride's family gives to the bridegroom, his parents, or his relatives as a condition of the marriage.

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Following the creation of the People's Republic of China, the issue of population control came into the national spotlight. In the early years of the Republic, leaders believed that telling citizens to reduce their fertility was enough, repealing laws banning contraception and instead promoting its use.

Sex-selective abortion

However, the contraceptives were not widely available, both because of lack of supply and because of cultural taboo against discussing sex. Efforts were slowed following the famine of but were resumed shortly thereafter with virtually the same results.

Then, inthe Family Planning Office was established to enforce stricter guidelines regarding fertility and it was moderately successful. Inthe government adopted the One-Child Policywhich limited many families to one child, unless specified by provincial regulations.

It was instituted as an attempt to boost the Chinese economy. Under it, families who break rules regarding the number of children they are allowed are given various punishments primarily monetarydependent upon the province in which they live. As stated above, the sex ratios of a province are largely determined by the type of restriction placed upon the family, pointing to the conclusion that much of the imbalance in sex ratio in China can be attributed to the policy.

Research by Junhong found that many parents are willing to pay to ensure that their child is male especially if their first child is femalebut will not do the same to ensure their child is female.

Therefore, son's cultural and economic importance to families and the large expenses associated with multiple children are primary factors leading to China's disparate sex ratio. InChina announced plans to formally change the One-Child policy, making it less stringent. The National People's Congress has changed the policy to allow couples to have two children, so long as one of the partners is an only child. This change was not sparked by sex ratios, but rather by an aging population that is causing the workforce to become increasingly smaller.

It is estimated that this new law will lead to two million more births per year and could cause a baby boom in China. InChina officially relaxed its one child law. So, it is unclear if this new law will actually lead to women being more valued in Chinese society as the number of citizens increases.

The Trivers-Willard hypothesis argues that available resources affect male reproductive success more than female and that consequently parents should prefer males when resources are plentiful and females when resources are scarce. This has been applied to resource differences between individuals in a society and also to resource differences between societies.

Empirical evidence is mixed with higher support in better studies according to Cronk in a review. One example, in a study, of a group with a preference for females was Romani in Hungarya low status group. They "had a female-biased sex ratio at birth, were more likely to abort a fetus after having had one or more daughters, nursed their daughters longer, and sent their daughters to school for longer.

In order to illustrate the gravity of the situation, he calculated the number of women that were not alive because of sex-selective abortion or discriminatory practices. This figure, when combined with statistics from around the world, led to a finding of over million missing women. This has led to particular concern due to a critical shortage of wives. In some rural areas, there is already a shortage of women, which is tied to migration into urban areas Park and Cho Some scholars argue that as the proportion of women to men decreases globally, there will be an increase in trafficking and sex work both forced and self-electe as many men will be willing to do more to obtain a sexual partner Junhong Guttentag and Secord hypothesized that when the proportion of males throughout the world is greater, there is likely to be more violence and war.

Some scholars believe that when sex ratios are high, women actually become valued more because of their relative shortage. Eventually, this could lead to better social conditions, followed by the birth of more women and sex ratios moving back to natural levels.

Keifitz wrote that as women become fewer, their relative position in society will increase. However, to date, no data has supported this claim. It has been suggested by Belanger that sex-selective abortion may have positive effects on the mother choosing to abort the female fetus. This is related to the historical duty of mothers to produce a son in order to carry on the family name. As previously mentioned, women gain status in society when they have a male child, but not when they have a female child.

Oftentimes, bearing of a son leads to greater legitimacy and agency for the mother. In some regions of the world where son preference is especially strong, sonless women are treated as outcasts.

In this way, sex-selective abortion is a way for women to select for male fetuses, helping secure greater family status.

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Goodkind [1] argues that sex-selective abortion should not be banned purely because of its discriminatory nature. Instead, he argues, we must consider the overall lifetime possibilities of discrimination.

In fact, it is possible that sex-selective abortion takes away much of the discrimination women would face later in life. Since families have the option of selecting for the fetal sex they desire, if they choose not to abort a female fetus, she is more likely to be valued later in life.

In this way, sex-selective abortion may be a more humane alternative to infanticide, abandonment, or neglect. There are many controversies surrounding sex-selective abortion. Just like the practice of sex-selective abortion has been criticized, the solutions proposed or enacted by governments have also been criticized. An article by Al Jazeera titled " How Western family planners helped curb the birth of girls in developing countries, the effects of which are felt today " claimed that it was such population policies which included forced sterilizationwhich were fully supported, even pushed by the West, that contributed to unbalanced sex ratios.

MacPherson estimates thatsex-selective abortions every year continue to be performed in India. Many scholars have noted the difficulty in reconciling the discriminatory nature of sex-selective abortion with the right of women to have control over their own bodies.

This conflict manifests itself primarily when discussing laws about sex-selective abortion. Weiss writes: "The most obvious challenge sex-selective abortion represents for pro-choice feminists is the difficulty of reconciling a pro-choice position with moral objections one might have to sex selective abortion especially since it has been used primarily on female fetusesmuch less the advocacy of a law banning sex-selective abortion.

Warren argues that there is a difference between acting within one's rights and acting upon the most morally sound choice, implying that sex-selective abortion might be within rights but not morally sound. Warren also notes that, if we are to ever reverse the trend of sex-selective abortion and high sex ratios, we must work to change the patriarchy-based society which breeds the strong son preference.

Laws against sex-selective abortion, especially those that exist in some U. The practice of prenatal sex selection has been condemned internationally.

It is often seen as a result of discriminatory social views which consider females inferior to males. In over states signed the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Developmentagreeing to "eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl child". Many nations have attempted to address sex-selective abortion rates through a combination of media campaigns and policy initiatives. In Canada, a group of MPs led by Mark Warawa are working on having the Parliament pass a resolution condemning sex-selective pregnancy termination.

The United States Congress has debated legislation that would outlaw the practice. On the state level, laws against sex-selective abortions have been passed in a number of U. The law on sex-selective abortion is unresolved in the United Kingdom. In order for an abortion to be legal, doctors need to show that continuing the pregnancy could threaten the physical or mental health of the mother. In a recent case, two doctors were caught on camera offering a sex-selective abortion but the Director of Public Prosecution deemed it not in the public interest to proceed with the prosecution.

Retrieved 17 July Sexual violence is one of the most horrific weapons of war, an instrument of terror used against women. Yet huge numbers of men are also victims. February 9, London: Amnesty International Publications. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

Denov Perspectives on female sex offending: a culture of denial. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. The Good Men Project. In Peter Childs and Mike Storry ed. Encyclopedia of Contemporary British Culture. The Denver Post. The Sunday Times. Petersburg Times. The Sacramento Bee.

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The Globe and Mail. Joyce McKinney and the Manacled Mormon. London: Mirror Books. Office of Public Sector Information. New York Times.

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